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though usually hidden to the human eye, naturally occurring marine biofluorescence can be seen under certain wavelengths of light (like ultraviolet) which causes the cells of the organisms seen here to absorb the light — and some of the photon’s energy — and then emit back a now less energetic light with a longer wavelength and thus a different colour.

biofluorescence is not be confused with bioluminescence (see posts), which is a  chemical reaction endemic to an organisms that causes them to glow.

photos by (click pic) daniel stoupin, alexander semenov, bent christensenlouise murray, and american museum of natural history (click pic for species)


Want to know how your tax dollars are being spent? Use our taxpayer receipt to find out!

Fun facts: 24.79% of your income tax goes to “National Defense”; of those 7.60% goes to “Research, development, weapons, and construction”, while 1.13% goes to “Science, Space and Technology Programs” and 1.43% to “Health research and food safety”. Conclusion: science and technology is only important if it can be used in war:

(via dreadiron)

Asker Anonymous Asks:
Where is the us army currently (around the world, if someone were to be deployed where might they be put)? Like, I have no clue at this point wow sorry I'm dumb. Thanks.
spherical-harmonics spherical-harmonics Said:


Hi there :) My intuitive answer to your question is “everywhere”, I’ll however provide you with a few charts and graphs explaining the enormous span of the U.S Military. 

The chart below provides you with an overview of U.S military bases around the world as of 2011. The introduction reads: “The United States is estimated to have anything from 700 military bases around the world to more than 1000. They include everything from small drone sites on dusty foreign airfields to the sprawling Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan with more than 20 000 troops”. Visit the source here for a full sized version of the graphic.


Different sources provide different numbers, but the U.S Military is present in more than 150 countries around the globe. Since 1945 , the United States has attempted to overthrow more than 50 foreign governments. Here is a list of all active duty military troops according to the U.S Department of Defense. Wikipedia (1 and 2) also provides a quick overview. 

U.S Military spending comapared to other nations

As shown by the graphs below, the U.S spent more on defense than the next 10 countries combined in 2012, in 2010 they spent more than the 14 next countries on the list. Notice that this includes countries MANY times the geographic size of the U.S. (source 12 and 3).



Daily chart: who spends the most on the military? America’s defence spending, at nearly $700 billion a year, is bigger than that of the next 17 countries combined.

Here’s the link to a very short video from the Economist explaining the exact same thing

The pie chart below shows the distribution of the total federal budget spending for FY 2013.


The “Social Security & Unemployment” and “Medicare & Health” take on a major fraction of the federal spending, amounting to about 58% of the total outlays, whereas “Military” spending appears to amount to just 18%. The problem with this representation is that the Social Security & Medicare are parts of the mandatory spending directly financed by the dedicated revenue raised from payroll taxes, as imposed by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), not through the Federal income tax and thus represents a different Treasury account.

If we separate the mandatory spending and look only at the discretionary spending component appropriated by Congress on an annual basis and for which all the federal programs compete, a very different picture arises (source).


The Military (“National Defense” budget function 050) consumes nearly 57% of the discretionary budget in comparison to Education (6%), Science (3%), Energy & Environment (3%), etc. Military spending has sharply risen since the beginning of the War on Terrorism, from $294b in FY 2000 to $705b in FY 2013 (source).

Of course, let’s not overlook the extensive gains of corporate America generated by such military spending:

A large portion of this spending goes to the military contractors, companies whose profits and viability critically depend on the size of the military budget. Defense contractors actively lobby and donate campaign money to the members of Congress who sit on the Armed Forces and Appropriations Committees which oversee military spending. The table below shows the amounts of federal contracts awarded to the five largest defense contractors, and the corresponding expenses on lobbying and political campaign contributions for 2011 (source).

imageMore here, here and here.


U.S predator drones kill hundreds of innocent civilians every year in Yemen, Pakistan, Somalia, Afghanistan, Iraq etc. This interactive website will give you an overview of all the U.S drone strikes causing the death of innocent women, men and children in Pakistan alone since 2004. Notice the development after Obama was sworn into office in 2008. In October 2013 Pakistani Nabila Rehman and her family (all survivors of a U.S drone strike in Pakistan) attended a hearing in the U.S Congress. Only 5 congressmen showed up to listen to their story. Google Nabila Rehman for more information. 



If you want to know more about the atrocitites carried out by the American military I suggest you do some quick google searches for the U.S Invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, U.S drone strikes, Academi/Blackwater, the military industrial complex, relations between Israel and USA etc etc etc..

Thank you for your ask and have a beautiful week. I hope this enlightened you a little! :)

Hii there :) Why is bisphenol considered carcinogenic/ how does it act?
spherical-harmonics spherical-harmonics Said:


For those who aren’t aware, bisphenol is a carbon-based compound, used to make polycarbonate plastics, often used in containers that store food or drinks.

An evaluation of the then current scientific research in 2002 found that bisphenol A (BPA) ‘is not likely to be carcinogenic in humans’. Similar reviews also concluded that research on rodents had not been sufficiently carried out in order to state whether there was a carcinogenic effect. 


However, since then, research in 2012 found that BPA can affect the mammary glands (milk producing organs) in female primates, adding to concerns that it may be a weak carcinogen in humans.

It has been suggested that any carcinogenic activity of BPA could come from its oestrogenic effects - that it could act in a similar manner to the products of the breakdown of oestrogen. Several studies support the idea that these can react with DNA to cause mutations, leading to the initiation of cancer. This proposed study from 2010 planned to attempt to gather evidence that BPA can act in this way, though it hastens to point out that even if this evidence is obtained, BPA is still, at most, very weakly carcinogenic in humans. Though this was a few years ago, I haven’t managed to find any follow up, however.

In short, the research on BPA still isn’t conclusive. Still, hope that at least partially answers your question!

Imagine all the food you have eaten in your life and consider that you are simply some of that food, rearranged.

Max Tegmark - read more about his intriguing musings on Integrated Information Theory (IIT) here (paper) and here (article, elaborating on his books core ideas).

IIT contains many echoes of cybernetics and panpsychism, but Tegmark’s angle on it as a physicist is especially interesting.

(via wetwareontologies)

(via science-isinteresting)


SMBC, you are like the inside of my brain.

Consider that you can see less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum and hear less than 1% of the acoustic spectrum. As you read this, you are traveling at 220 km/sec across the galaxy. 90% of the cells in your body carry their own microbial DNA and are not ‘you’. The atoms in your body are 99.9999999999999999% empty space and none of them are the ones you were born with, but they all originated in the belly of a star. Human beings have 46 chromosomes, 2 less than the common potato. The existence of the rainbow depends on the conical photoreceptors in your eyes; to animals without cones, the rainbow does not exist. So you don’t just look at a rainbow, you create it. This is pretty amazing, especially considering that all the beautiful colors you see represent less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The press still thinks [global warming] is controversial. So they find the 1% of the scientists and put them up as if they’re 50% of the research results. You in the public would have no idea that this is basically a done deal and that we’re on to other problems, because the journalists are trying to give it a 50/50 story. It’s not a 50/50 story. It’s not. Period.
Neil deGrasse Tysonpodcast interview (via we-are-star-stuff)

(via shychemist)


A handful of microelectronic parts, from the March 10, 1961, issue of LIFE

(Photo: Fritz Goro)